Arsip Kategori: Telekomunikasi

Shatring Tentang Telekomunikasi

non root login your open wrt router


Here is a summary of the steps required :

1. edit /etc/passwd and create an account. I used admin.  set shell /bin/false so users cant login either via ssh or the console using this account.
2. edit /etc/shadow and clone the root line and name it admin

here is my /etc/passwd
root:x:0:0:root:/tmp:/bin/ash
admin:x:100:100:admin:/root:/bin/false
daemon:*:1:1:daemon:/var:/bin/false
ftp:*:55:55:ftp:/home/ftp:/bin/false
network:*:101:101:network:/var:/bin/false
nobody:*:65534:65534:nobody:/var:/bin/false

here is /etc/shadow
root:$1$dcjUpu/v$MGBl1uIAGSwTpV5Rwnmv50:15225:0:999997:::  # jangan Merubah apapun pada baris ini
admin:$1$q6rcQdCT$6Va8cqauOlDMAKvVX.HgH.:15225:0:99999:7::: # bisa diganti via command passwd admin
daemon:*:0:0:99999:7:::
ftp:*:0:0:99999:7:::
network:*:0:0:99999:7:::
nobody:*:0:0:99999:7:::

3. passwd admin and assign admin a new password
4. edit /usr/lib/lua/luci/controller/admin/index.lua and change line 28 to read
page.sysauth = {“admin”,”root”}
5. edit /usr/lib/lua/luci/controller/admin/system.lua and change line 326 to read
stat = luci.sys.user.setpasswd(“admin”, p1)
this is important or luci will change the root password instead of the admin password under system->administration
6. edit /usr/lib/lua/luci/controller/admin/servicectl.lua line 18 to read
entry({“servicectl”}, alias(“servicectl”, “status”)).sysauth = {“admin”,”root”}
this allows luci to save and activate changes.

once this is done you can login into luci as either root or admin.    Note that when logging in as root (or admin) changing the password in the gui only affects the password for admin.  The only way to change the root password is via the shell.  This is perfect for most since you want the user to access the gui and manage his account but you want to a service account that techs can use to do maintenance on the router no matter what the admin user has done in the gui

you may also can edit your custom rule menu configuration in order limiting acces your admin by editing: /overlay/usr/lib/lua/luci/model/cbi/firewall

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Cara flash Linksys e3000 via tftp dan CFE BroadCom


1. Buka penutup board dan hubungkan/solder jalur serial TTL-nya dengan kabel jumper
female ( baca dulu ya spesifikasi board-nya di sini )
2. Hubungkan port female dengan USb TTL
3. download Usb to Serial Driver
4. Download TFTP linksy (tftp2)
5. Siapkan File Firmwarre binary-nya ( Open WRT / OS bawaan Linksys)
6. Download Putty
7. Buka Putty Serial dengan baudrate 115200
8. tidak selang 1 detik setelah linksys dinyalakan klik open pada putty diikuti dengan
mengetikkan ctrl+c untuk mencegah route booting ke OS bawaan
9. akan muncul tampilan CFE>
10. Ketikkan nvram erase kemudian enter
11. Buka TFTP, ketikkan IP Router yg mau diflash
12. Pada password TFTP kosongkan saja
13. Pada File arahkan pada Binary ug akan diuploadkan ke router
14. Pada putty / CFE ketikkan flash -ctheader : flash1.trx kemudian enter
15. Tidak berselang 1 detik setelah langkah 15 Klik Upgrade pada TFTP
16. Tunggu sampai proses pada CFE selesai
17. Akan ada notifikasi Sukses pada TFTP dan CFE
18. Kemudian pada CFE ketikkan go kemudian enter

Jika pada suatu kasus Ip router yang kan diflash tidak bisa di-ping maka harus
dikonfigurasi IP-nya melalui CFE
misal : CFE>ifconfig -auto eth0 atau ifconfig -addr=192.168.1.5 -gw=192.168.1.1 –
mask=255.255.255.0 eth0
— dicoba saja sampai bisa di-ping hehehe
–eits.. sblmnya.. hubungkan dulu jalur ethernet routernya di hub/PC

Artikel ini juga bermanfaat buat router/AP lain dengan Platform Broadcom
— Semoga Bermanfaat

cara membuat Kabel console


from : http://www.kame.net/~suz/cisco-cable.html

1. Preparation
Anda harus menyediakan, sebuah cisco  and sebuah terminal console

  • RJ45-DSub9Pin Cable Changer (In=RJ45 Female, Out=DSub9Pin Female)
  • Ethernet Category-5 straight cable
2. how to connect them
Silahkan melihat Gambar berikut ini. Anda harus menyambungkan DSub9Pin’s 2, 3, and 5 pada port  RJ45 dengan benar; sedangkan yang lainnya bersifat optional.
RJ45-DSub9pin Connector Pin Layout

Setting Modem E63 untuk 3ad three pada Ubuntu 10.04 Lucid Lync


Sudah hampir dua tahunan menggunakan ubuntu 10.04 sebagai OS sekunder, tapi baru sekarang punya GSM modem, itupun HP Gsm yang saya pakai sebagai modem

kali ini saya mencoba layanan Internet juara yang digemborkan operator three indonesia.

Normalnya.. modem GSM sudah bisa terdeteksi dengan baik jika kita kita sudah melakukan instalasi usb_modeswitch melalui Synaptic Package Manager (System–>>Administration–>Synaptic Package Manager → dengan memberi tanda centang dan install) Lanjutkan membaca Setting Modem E63 untuk 3ad three pada Ubuntu 10.04 Lucid Lync

Dunia Menuju Televisi Digital


Transisi menuju televisi digital atau digital switchover (DSO) atau analogue swithoff (ASO), adalah proses konversi TV analog digantikan dengan Televisi Digital. Menyangkut Stasiun televisi maupun disisi penerima (pemirsa). Tentu hal ini juga berkaitan dengan content provider (penyedia content) seperti Jaringan televisi terestrial dan TV kabel menuju kabel digital.

Di berbagai negara, ada yang mengoperasikan layanan simulcast ( transmisi bersamaan digital dan analog ) sehingga sebuah siaran dapat dinikmati oleh pemirsa baik yang menggunakan TV analog maupun TV digital dalam waktu yang bersamaan, sehingga pada saatnya ketika ketika TV digital telah populer maka sistem analog kemudian akan dihentikan. Suatu kasus, sebuah stasiun televisi asing telah memberikan insentif kepada para pemirsanya untuk mengarahkan mereka switch ke digital. Sedangkan di negara yang lainnya ada peraturan pemerintah yang menginstruksikan untuk beralih ke televisi digital atau secara tegas memproses peralihan terutama yang berkaitan dengan sistem terestrial.

Intervensi pemerintah biasanya berkaitan dengan penyediaan dana bagi stasiun TV (Penyelenggara siaran / Broadcaster ) dan pada negara tertentu dengan meringankan pajak bagi pemirsa, untuk mempercepat proses switchover sesuai deadline.

Switchover Infrastruktur siaran skala capaiannya bergantung pada luas area, jumlah pemancar yang harus diganti, dan jumlah pemirsa yang menggunakan TV analog sebagai TV utama. misal di Berlin sebagian besar pelanggan residensial menggunakan TV kabel, sehingga di kota ini hanya sejumlah kecil pelanggan/pemirsa yang harus mengganti penerima TV-nya. Tapi di negeri Inggris hanya 65% pemirsa perumahan bisa mengakses multi-channel( data 2005). untuk itu di negeri ini sekitar 10 juta pemirsanya harus dikonversi untuk menggunakan penerima TV digital.

Salah satu alasan switch over:

-Kualitas gambar dan suara yang lebih baik dibandingkan siaran analog -Mengifisiensi spektrum radio, yang mana space bandwidth yang ada bisa lantas kemudian digunakan untuk banyak keperluan yang lain
-Multiplexed subchannel.

Intinya secara umum jika kita ngomong tentang sistem komunikasi digital, kita hanya mengenal kode 0 dan 1. Sudah pasti jauh lebih baik jika dibandingkan sistem analog yang levelnya terlalu bervariasi. analoginya kita dengerin Ponsel GSM/CDMA kita, dimana di ponsel kita yang telah menggunakan prinsip modulasi digital sehingga kita tidak pernah denger suara gemeresek, karena handal ketika terkena gangguan.

Berikut ini Gambaran persiapan beberapa negara di dunia yang sedang switch-over ke TV digital:

* Luxembourg was the first country to complete the move to digital broadcasting on September 1, 2006.

* Netherlands moved to digital broadcasting on December 11, 2006. The switch-off was helped greatly by the fact that about 90% of the households subscribe to cable systems which continue to use analog distribution, thus their old tuners continued to be useful.

* Finland ceased analog terrestrial transmissions nationwide at 4am, September 1, 2007[2] (switch-off was previously planned for the midnight after August 31 but a few extra hours were added for technical reasons). Cable TV viewers continued

to receive analogue broadcasts until the end of February 2008.
* Andorra completed its switch-off on September 25, 2007.[3]

* Sweden: The switch-off of the analogue terrestrial network progressed region–by–region. It started on the island of Gotland on September 15, 2005, and was completed on October 15, 2007, when the last analogue SVT1 transmitters in Scania and Blekinge were shut down. [4] Cable distributors are allowed to continue broadcasting analogue television.

* Switzerland began with the switch-off on July 24, 2006 in Ticino and continued with Engadin on November 13, 2006. The switch-off was completed on 26 November, 2007.

* Belgium (Flanders): the situation is rather complex, as media regulations are under regional legislation. Flanders switched off analogue television on November 3, 2008, because coverage is already at 99 percent. Wallonia has not yet announced a date for the switchover.
* Germany started the switch-off in the Berlin area, beginning on 1 November 2002 and completing on 4 August 2003.

Simulcast digital transmissions started in other parts of the country in an effort to prepare for a full switchover. The switch-off was completed on November 25, 2008.

Transition in progress

* Australia: The Australian government originally planned a switch-off in 2008. This has now been delayed to 2010 for some regional areas and to 2013 for the rest of the country.[5][6] Until that time, free-to-air stations will be simulcast, along with digital only channels like ABC2. Since 1999, legislation has required all locally made free-to-air television transmissions to be in 16:9 widescreen format. Cable television networks began simulcasting in 2004 and analog cable services

were switched off in April 2007.
* Austria began analogue switch-off on March 5, 2007, progressing from the west to the east.
* Bulgaria will complete its analog switch-off in December 2012.

* Brazil began free-to-air HD digital transmissions, after a period of test broadcasts, on December 2, 2007 in São Paulo, expanding in January 2008 to Brasília, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte. Digital broadcasts will be phased into theother 23 state capitals by the end of 2009, and to the remaining cities by December 31, 2013. Analogue and digital simulcasts will continue until June 29, 2016, when analogue will be discontinued. The main broadcasters (Globo, Record, Band,SBT and RedeTV!) are simulcasting in analogue and digital broadcast, in standard definition and 1080i high definition.

* Belgium (Wallonia): Flanders switched off analogue television on November 3, 2008. But Wallonia has not yet announced a date and is expected to follow the European dates because of geographic difficulties in covering the whole region. In Wallonia, there is already an 80 percent DTT coverage.

* Canada: The main FTA broadcasters (CBC, CTV, and Global) have launched HD streams of their programming in limited markets such as Toronto and Vancouver. Originally, unlike in the other countries, Canada was allowing the market to determine when the analogue switch-off begins. As a result, currently analogue and digital broadcasts co-exist, with virtually the only way to receive Canadian digital TV in most areas being via cable or satellite TV. In Toronto it is possible to pick up DTV over the air; in Montreal, Ottawa and Quebec City a partial set of channels (most often CBC only) are offered – primarily as a vehicle for limited HDTV deployments. Much of Canada has over-the-air access to US border stations, most of which offer ATSC DTV. Signal strength and quality varies widely. New TV’s and DVD recorders often include ATSC tuners but are not required to do so; availability of basic converters for existing NTSC TV’s is limited.[10] As of May 2007[update] there are fewer than 20 digital television stations in Canada. On May 17, 2007, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC, Canada’s broadcasting authority) ruled that television stations would be forced to switch to ATSC digital broadcasting by 31 August 2011, with minor exceptions in remote areas where analogue transmissions will not cause interference.

* China The switch-off is scheduled to be in 2015.
* Colombia plans to close down analogue in 1 January 2020.
* Croatia plans to close down analogue broadcasting in 2010.
* Czech Republic started the switch-off in September 2007 and should finish by November 2011 (some regions June 2012).

The areas of Domažlice, West Bohemia, Prague, Central Bohemia, South Bohemia have already switched off analog broadcasting of ČT2.

* Denmark began digital transmission in March 2006 and the analogue network will be closed at the end of October 2009.

* Estonia In Estonia analog switch-off date has been set for July 1st 2010.

* France will have completed the switch-off in 2011. 80% of the population will be able to see TNT in 2008.
* Greece: the switch-off will complete after the end of 2011. [1].
* Hong Kong’s analogue broadcasting is planned to be switched off by 2012.
* Hungary is scheduled to switch off analogue broadcasting in 1 January 2012.

* Ireland’s broadcaster RTÉ plans to make digital television available to most of the population by 2010 , and the switchoff is planned to be complete by 2012.
* Italy’s government aims to complete the digital switchover by 2012.
* Japan is also running an intense nationwide campaign announcing the planned switchover to digital on July 24, 2011.

Many television stations around the country have already begun broadcasting simultaneously in digital.

* Kenya’s Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) announced that the country will start digital broadcasting in 2008 following preliminary work by the government. Kenya will be among the first countries in Africa to implement digitalbroadcasting.

* Mexico has a 20-year plan to switch, with the target year of 2022 for the analogue shut-off. Some digital signals are already on-air, the first being Tijuana’s XETV – an English-language affiliate of The CW serving primarily San Diego, California. Groups of cities which are required to simulcast digitally are added in descending order of size, with full coverage of the smallest centres required for 2021.

* Malaysia: Information Ministry was planning to shut down the country’s analogue television system in phases beginning from 2009 and set to convert to full digital TV in 2015.

* New Zealand: It was announced on the 29 November 2007 that the analogue TV broadcasts will end within the next 6 to 10 years and expect a switch off date to be announced by 2012. Digital broadcast via Freeview become available late 2007. Morerecent estimates of this switch-off date have been in the area of 2013 to 2015 [19]A tentative date will be set when digital uptake reaches 60% (55% reached as of November 2008).[20]

* Norway: The switch-off of the analogue transmissions started in March 2008 and will the progress region-by-region. The last analogue transmitters are scheduled to close down by the end of 2009.
* Poland: The analog broadcast will stop on either 12 December 2012 or in 2014.
* Portugal’s government aims to complete the digital switchover by 2012; digital broadcasts will start on 29 April 2009.
* Peru plans to close down analogue in 28 July, 2020.

* Philippines: the National Telecommunications Commission will terminate all analogue television transmission on December 31, 2015. Digital television in the Philippines will be launched by ABS-CBN in 2009 using either DVB-T or ISDB-T.
* Russia has announced that the switch-off is to be completed in 2015.
* Serbia: first launched DTT Channel in 2008. The government aims to complete ASO by 2011.
* Slovakia: the government aims to complete the digital switchover by 2012.
* Slovenia: the switch-off will be completed in 2010.

* South Africa started switch-off in November 2008 in preparation for the 2010 FIFA World Cup and should be completed by mid 2011.
* South Korea’s analogue transmissions will be terminated nationwide on December 31, 2012, and major broadcasters like

MBC, SBSor other affiliated networks, KBS are broadcasting both analog and digital TV in most major city.
* Spain: the switch-off will be completed on or before April 3, 2010.[24]
* Ukraine: analogue transmissions will be terminated on 17 July 2015. Switch-over commenced on 1 April 2009.

* United Kingdom: Following a technical trial in a small community in Wales on 30 March 2005, the digital switchover began in the UK on 17 October 2007 with Whitehaven in Cumbria (Border), and is proceeding to a transmitter switchover timetable, implemented by region. The last transmitters are London, Tyne Tees and Ulster, that will be switched off by March 2013. The process is managed by Digital UK, with some viewers eligible for the Digital Switchover Help Scheme.

* United States: By no later than June 12, 2009 following Congressional and Presidential approval on February 4, 2009, all full-power US television will be digital,and analogue transmissions terminated, according to legislation

setting this deadline signed into law in early 2006. At noon September 8, 2008, major television stations in the Wilmington,

North Carolina media market turned off analog; Hawaii followed on January 15, 2009. Final LPTV switchover dates have not yet

been determined.

Further information: DTV transition in the United States

Bagaimana Indonesia?

Di Indonesia, Depkominfo telah menetapkan tiga tahapan migrasi TV analog ke digital yaitu pertama mulai 2008-2012 yang meliputi
tahap uji coba, penghentian izin lisensi baru untuk TV analog setelah beroperasinya penyelenggara infrastruktur TV digital, dimulai lisensi baru untuk penyelenggara infrastruktur TV digital, pemetaan lokasi dimulainya siaran digital dan dihentikannya siaran analog, dan mendorong industri elektronik dalam negeri dalam penyediaan peralatan penerima TV digital.

Sedangkan tahap kedua yang ditargetkan mulai tahun 2013-2017, meliputi penghentian siaran TV analog di kota-kota besar dilanjutkan dengan daerah regional lain; serta intensifikasi penerbitan izin bagi mix operator yang awalnya beroperasi analog ke digital.

Dan tahap ketiga atau terakhir, merupakan periode dimana seluruh siaran TV analog dihentikan, siaran TV digital beroperasi penuh pada band IV dan V, dan kanal 49 ke atas digunakan untuk sistem telekomunikasi nirkabel masa depan.

Sumber : – http://www.wikipedia.org

– Keterangan pers Depkominfo